Closure of a business in an efficient, timebound manner and with less burden on the owners is the aim of the Fast Track Insolvency Process under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code. Read on to know more and for any issues related to the closure of your business, connect with Flywork.io.
When a company/business debtor (Corporate Debtor) is unable to continue daily operations in a business, he/she files for insolvency, which further results in formation of plans to repay the creditors, employees, workmen, etc. The maximum number of days needed to complete the resolution procedure under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 is 270 days. This is not very practical for business/companies which have a smaller line of business, as the creditors involved in a small-business enterprise is low compared to that of a bigger company. Faster settlement would lure buyers to small businesses and start-ups, the majority of which do not last long. Thus, in order to eliminate the unnecessary delay induced by a small-scale company’s insolvency the Government introduced a quicker option to complete the Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process (CIRP), i.e., Fast-track Insolvency Procedure under the Sections 55-58 of the IBC, 2016 read with the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Fast track Insolvency Resolution Process for Corporate Persons) Regulations, 2017.
Sections 55 to 58 of the Code of 2016 were added to resolve the issue of undue delay in insolvency proceedings involving small businesses; the fast-track insolvency procedure takes 90 days to complete from the insolvency filing date. The time period for settlement can be extended only once by the Adjudicating Authority upto a period of 45 days, if it thinks fit, subject to support by voting share of at least 75% of the Committee of Creditors.
The following is the procedure to be followed under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, read with the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Fast track Insolvency Resolution Process for Corporate Persons) Regulations, 2017 –
|Appointment of Resolution Professional||Only an Insolvency Professional (IP) who has no relationship with the corporate debtor is qualified to be appointed as a resolution professional. In order to be appointed as a resolution professional, the insolvency professional must be self-sufficient/independent. At the time of his nomination, the insolvency professional must declare his independence at the time of appointment.|
|Public Announcement||After being named as an interim resolution professional, the insolvency professional must make a public statement within three days of his appointment. The public notice must be distributed in one English and one regional language newspaper that is commonly distributed in the location of the corporate debtor’s registered office and principal office. A corporate debtor’s website and the board’s website would both have the same official announcement.|
|Claims – Submission, Verification and Proof of claims||The interim resolution professional shall provide 10 days to provide proof of claim. Operational creditors, financial creditors, workmen, employees, and other creditors must provide evidence of their statements in the specified forms, along with any additional documentation or clarifications.|
When applications are submitted, the resolution professional must validate them within seven days of the claim submission deadline. After that, the resolution professional will create a list of creditors.
|Formation of a committee of Creditors||The resolution professional would assemble a group of creditors made up of the corporate debtor’s financial and operational creditors, which shall be known as the Committee of Creditors (CoC). The CoC will constitute only operational creditors if the corporate debtor has no financial debt or if the financial creditors are an associated party (related party) of the corporate debtor.|
|Meeting of the committee of creditors||Within seven days of filing the paper, the resolution professional must call the first meeting of the newly formed committee of creditors. Following that, the committee will meet at any time if and when it is required. After receiving a vote of 33 percent voting share, the resolution professional will call a meeting of the committee at the request of committee members. The meeting notice must be sent at least seven days before the scheduled meeting date. The meeting notice must be in writing and sent to members either by hand, by speed post, or online.|
|Conduct of the fast-track process||Under Section 26-29 of the Regulations, the Resolution Professional, within seven days of his appointment, must select a registered valuer to determine the liquidation value of the corporate debtor. After personally checking the inventory and fixed assets of corporate debtors, the registered valuer shall apply an indicative liquidation value.|
|Formation, approval and submission of the Resolution Plan||The resolution plan must include the steps that must be taken to put it into action. The resolution plan must be written with the requisite mandatory material in mind. Under the time frame, the resolution applicant must apply the drafted resolution plan to the resolution professional. The resolution professional would then present the shortlisted resolution plans to the Committee of Creditors, for approval. The committee has the authority to approve any resolution proposal, with or without changes, as it sees fit.The resolution applicant must apply the authorized resolution plan, along with all appropriate certifications, to the adjudicating authority. On receipt of the resolution plan, the adjudicating authority must issue an order approving or refusing the resolution plan.|
However, the fast-track process does have a few setbacks, for example, failure to complete the Fast-track procedure within 90 days (or with an extension of 45 days, depending on the approval of the Adjudicating Authority) will lead to initiation of liquidation process, which is disadvantageous to the corporate debtor, i.e., it destroys organizational capital and renders resources idle till reallocation to alternate uses. Another challenge regarding the procedure is whether 90 days is sufficient for the entire CIRP to be completed as the efficiency of the same depends on the resolution plans, approval by the CoC, etc.
The Fast-Track Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process is a great initiative to target a particular segment of corporate debtors against which creditors or the corporate debtor himself may begin insolvency proceedings. The time limit is often set in such a way that less complex cases can be solved in a short amount of time, allowing adjudicating officials to devote more time to more complex cases.
- Sections 55 to 58 of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 and
- Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Fast track Insolvency Resolution Process for Corporate Persons) Regulations, 2017.
By Achyutha Bharadwaj